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Boston bombs said to be made from pressure cookers

AFP/Getty Images - U.S. military Humvees rolling down a deserted Boylston Street on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, which is considered a crime scene after two explosions rocked the Boston Marathon on Monday. There are no known additional threats following the bombing at the Boston marathon that killed three people and wounded more than 150, an FBI official said Tuesday.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AFP/Getty Images</em></div>U.S. military Humvees rolling down a deserted Boylston Street on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, which is considered a crime scene after two explosions rocked the Boston Marathon on Monday. There are no known additional threats following the bombing at the Boston marathon that killed three people and wounded more than 150, an FBI official said Tuesday.
Reuters - Investigators survey the site of a bomb blast on Boylston Street a day after two explosions hit the Boston Marathon in Boston, Massachusetts April 16, 2013. A pressure cooker stuffed with gunpowder and shrapnel caused at least one of the blasts at the Boston Marathon that killed three people and injured 176 others in the worst attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001, law enforcement sources said on Tuesday.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Reuters</em></div>Investigators survey the site of a bomb blast on Boylston Street a day after two explosions hit the Boston Marathon in Boston, Massachusetts April 16, 2013. A pressure cooker stuffed with gunpowder and shrapnel caused at least one of the blasts at the Boston Marathon that killed three people and injured 176 others in the worst attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001, law enforcement sources said on Tuesday.
Getty Images - A young boy holds a lit candle and an American flag atop his father's shoulders during a vigil for eight-year-old Martin Richard, from Dorchester, who was killed by an explosion near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 16, 2013 at Garvey Park in Boston, Massachusetts. The twin bombings resulted in the deaths of three people and hospitalized at least 128. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Getty Images</em></div>A young boy holds a lit candle and an American flag atop his father's shoulders during a vigil for eight-year-old Martin Richard, from Dorchester, who was killed by an explosion near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 16, 2013 at Garvey Park in Boston, Massachusetts. The twin bombings resulted in the deaths of three people and hospitalized at least 128. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence.
Getty Images - A young runner (left) sits in a church blocks away from the scene of yesterday's bombing attack at the Boston Marathon on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, in Boston. The twin bombings, which occurred near the marathon finish line, resulted in the deaths of three people while hospitalizing at least 128. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race, resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Getty Images</em></div>A young runner (left) sits in a church blocks away from the scene of yesterday's bombing attack at the Boston Marathon on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, in Boston. The twin bombings, which occurred near the marathon finish line, resulted in the deaths of three people while hospitalizing at least 128. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race, resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence.
AP - This undated photo provided by Bill Richard, shows his son, Martin Richard, in Boston. Martin Richard, 8, was among the at least three people killed in the explosions, Monday, April 15, 2013, at the finish line of the Boston Marathon.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AP</em></div>This undated photo provided by Bill Richard, shows his son, Martin Richard, in Boston. Martin Richard, 8, was among the at least three people killed in the explosions, Monday, April 15, 2013, at the finish line of the Boston Marathon.
AP - Dr. Brien Barnewolt, chair of emergency medicine at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, speaks to reporters at the hospital, Tuesday, April 16, 2013. Barnewolt was among the staff who treated the 14 patients injured in the bombing at the finish of the Boston Marathon who were treated at Tufts.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AP</em></div>Dr. Brien Barnewolt, chair of emergency medicine at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, speaks to reporters at the hospital, Tuesday, April 16, 2013. Barnewolt was among the staff who treated the 14 patients injured in the bombing at the finish of the Boston Marathon who were treated at Tufts.
REUTERS - U.S. President Barack Obama departs after making a statement on the Boston bombing from the White House in Washington, D.C., on Tuesday, April 16, 2013. Obama called the Boston bombings an 'act of terror' on Tuesday, but said it is not clear yet whether the twin blasts were the work of a foreign or domestic group or a 'malevolent individual.'
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>REUTERS</em></div>U.S. President Barack Obama departs after making a statement on the Boston bombing from the White House in Washington, D.C., on Tuesday, April 16, 2013. Obama called the Boston bombings an 'act of terror' on Tuesday, but said it is not clear yet whether the twin blasts were the work of a foreign or domestic group or a 'malevolent individual.'
Getty Images - A member of the U.S. Secret Service stands watch on Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, after its flag was lowered to half-staff to honor the victims of the attack on the Boston Marathon. Police and other law enforcement agencies in Washington and across the country continue to operate at a heightened state of security after yesterday's Boston Marathon bombings that killed three people injured hundreds.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Getty Images</em></div>A member of the U.S. Secret Service stands watch on Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, after its flag was lowered to half-staff to honor the victims of the attack on the Boston Marathon. Police and other law enforcement agencies in Washington and across the country continue to operate at a heightened state of security after yesterday's Boston Marathon bombings that killed three people injured hundreds.
AFP/Getty Images - Boston Mayor Thomas Menino speaks at a press conference April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts, in the aftermath of two explosions that struck near the finish line of the Boston Marathon April 15. The number of casualties in a Monday's bombings at the Boston marathon has risen to 176, police said Tuesday. Three people were killed.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AFP/Getty Images</em></div>Boston Mayor Thomas Menino speaks at a press conference April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts, in the aftermath of two explosions that struck near the finish line of the Boston Marathon April 15. The number of casualties in a Monday's bombings at the Boston marathon has risen to 176, police said Tuesday. Three people were killed.
Getty Images - A Boston police officer stands near the scene of a twin bombing at the Boston Marathon on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, in Boston, Mass. The twin bombings, which occurred near the marathon finish line, resulted in the deaths of three people while hospitalizing at least 128. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race, resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Getty Images</em></div>A Boston police officer stands near the scene of a twin bombing at the Boston Marathon on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, in Boston, Mass. The twin bombings, which occurred near the marathon finish line, resulted in the deaths of three people while hospitalizing at least 128. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race, resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence.
AFP/Getty Images - Armed police officers secure the main entrance to Brigham and Women's Hospital on Monday, April 15, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. Many who were wounded when two explosions struck near the finish line of the Boston Marathon were brought to Brigham and Women's.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AFP/Getty Images</em></div>Armed police officers secure the main entrance to Brigham and Women's Hospital on Monday, April 15, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. Many who were wounded when two explosions struck near the finish line of the Boston Marathon were brought to Brigham and Women's.
AFP/Getty Images - A crumpled runners' blanket on a sidewalk April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts, in the aftermath of two explosions that struck near the finish line of the Boston Marathon April 15. A massive probe was underway Tuesday after two bombs struck the Boston Marathon, killing at least three and wounding more than 100. Monday's blasts near the finishing line raised fears of a terrorist attack more than a decade after nearly 3,000 people were killed in suicide airliner strikes on New York, Washington and Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AFP/Getty Images</em></div>A crumpled runners' blanket on a sidewalk April 16, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts, in the aftermath of two explosions that struck near the finish line of the Boston Marathon April 15. A massive probe was underway Tuesday after two bombs struck the Boston Marathon, killing at least three and wounding more than 100. Monday's blasts near the finishing line raised fears of a terrorist attack more than a decade after nearly 3,000 people were killed in suicide airliner strikes on New York, Washington and Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001.
Getty Images - The unfinished meals of fleeing customers are left on tables at an outdoor restaurant near the scene of a twin bombing at the Boston Marathon on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, in Boston. The twin bombings, which occurred near the marathon finish line, resulted in the deaths of three people while hospitalizing at least 128. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race, resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Getty Images</em></div>The unfinished meals of fleeing customers are left on tables at an outdoor restaurant near the scene of a twin bombing at the Boston Marathon on Tuesday, April 16, 2013, in Boston. The twin bombings, which occurred near the marathon finish line, resulted in the deaths of three people while hospitalizing at least 128. The bombings at the 116-year-old Boston race, resulted in heightened security across the nation with cancellations of many professional sporting events as authorities search for a motive to the violence.
AP - An Amtrak police officer stands watch at South Station in Boston Tuesday, April 16, 2013, as commuters disembark the morning after two explosions went off near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The explosions Monday afternoon killed at least three people and injured more than 140.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AP</em></div>An Amtrak police officer stands watch at South Station in Boston Tuesday, April 16, 2013, as commuters disembark the morning after two explosions went off near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The explosions Monday afternoon killed at least three people and injured more than 140.
AP - Two women place flowers on the doorstep of the Richard house in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, Tuesday, April 16, 2013. Martin Richard, 8, was killed in the Mondays bombings at the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The boy's mother, Denise, and 6-year-old sister, Jane, were badly injured.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AP</em></div>Two women place flowers on the doorstep of the Richard house in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, Tuesday, April 16, 2013. Martin Richard, 8, was killed in the Mondays bombings at the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The boy's mother, Denise, and 6-year-old sister, Jane, were badly injured.
AP - Boston police stand watch over wheelchairs used in yesterday's Boston Marathon in Boston Tuesday, April 16, 2013. The bombs that ripped through the Boston Marathon crowd were fashioned out of ordinary kitchen pressure cookers, packed with nails and other fiendishly lethal shrapnel, and hidden in duffel bags left on the ground, people close to the investigation said Tuesday.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>AP</em></div>Boston police stand watch over wheelchairs used in yesterday's Boston Marathon in Boston Tuesday, April 16, 2013. The bombs that ripped through the Boston Marathon crowd were fashioned out of ordinary kitchen pressure cookers, packed with nails and other fiendishly lethal shrapnel, and hidden in duffel bags left on the ground, people close to the investigation said Tuesday.
Reuters - Blood and debris are seen on the sidewalk along Boylston Street a day after two explosions hit the Boston Marathon in Boston, Massachusetts April 16, 2013. Two bombs packed with ball bearings tore through crowds near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on Monday, killing three people and triggering a massive hunt for those behind an attack the White House said would be treated as 'an act of terror.'
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Reuters</em></div>Blood and debris are seen on the sidewalk along Boylston Street a day after two explosions hit the Boston Marathon in Boston, Massachusetts April 16, 2013. Two bombs packed with ball bearings tore through crowds near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on Monday, killing three people and triggering  a massive hunt for those behind an attack the White House said would be treated as 'an act of terror.'

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3rd victim Chinese national

NEW YORK — The Chinese Consulate in New York says a Chinese national is the third person killed in the Boston marathon blasts.

An official at the consulate's press section, who was not authorized to give his name, said that one Chinese student was injured and another died in the blast.

The official said a work group from the consulate was in Boston to investigate the situation and assist relatives of the victims.

The official Chinese news agency Xinhua reported that relatives have requested that the deceased not be identified.

Related .pdfs
This Homeland Security Department pamphlet, from July 2010, distributed to police, fore, EMS and security personnel shows a diagram for rudimentary improvised explosive devices (IEDs) using pressure cookers to contain the initiator, switch and explosive charge. A person briefed on the Boston Marathon investigation says at least one of the explosives were in 6-liter pressure cookers and placed in black duffel bag. (AP Photo/Homeland Security Department)
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By The Associated Press
Tuesday, April 16, 2013, 7:12 a.m.
 

BOSTON — Federal agents zeroed in Tuesday on how the Boston Marathon bombing was carried out — with kitchen pressure cookers packed with explosives, nails and other lethal shrapnel — but said they still didn't know who did it and why.

An intelligence bulletin issued to law enforcement and released late Tuesday included a picture of a mangled pressure cooker and a torn black bag the FBI said were part of a bomb.

The FBI and other law enforcement agencies repeatedly pleaded for members of the public to come forward with photos, videos or anything suspicious they might have seen or heard.

“The range of suspects and motives remains wide open,” Richard DesLauriers, FBI agent in charge in Boston, said at a news conference. He vowed to “go to the ends of the Earth to identify the subject or subjects who are responsible for this despicable crime.”

President Barack Obama branded the attack an act of terrorism but said officials don't know “whether it was planned and executed by a terrorist organization, foreign or domestic, or was the act of a malevolent individual.”

Scores of victims remained in hospitals, many with grievous injuries, a day after the twin explosions near the marathon's finish line killed three people, wounded more than 170 and reawakened fears of terrorism. A 9-year-old girl and 10-year-old boy were among 17 victims listed in critical condition.

Heightening jitters in Washington, where security already had been tightened after the bombing, a letter addressed to a senator and poisoned with ricin or a similarly toxic substance was intercepted at a mail facility outside the capital, lawmakers said.

There was no immediate indication the episode was related to the Boston attack. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid said the letter was sent to Republican Sen. Roger Wicker, of Mississippi.

Officials found that the bombs in Boston consisted of explosives put in ordinary 1.6-gallon pressure cookers, one with shards of metal and ball bearings, the other with nails, according to a person close to the investigation who spoke on condition of anonymity because the probe was still going on. The bombs were stuffed into black duffel bags and left on the ground, the person said.

DesLauriers confirmed that investigators had found pieces of black nylon from a bag or backpack and fragments of BBs and nails, possibly contained in a pressure cooker. He said the items were sent to the FBI laboratory at Quantico, Va., for analysis.

The FBI said it is looking at what Boston television station WHDH said are photos sent by a viewer that show the scene right before and after the bombs went off. The photo shows something next to a mailbox that appears to be a bag, but it's unclear what the significance is.

“We're taking a look at hundreds of photos, and that's one of them,” FBI spokesman Jason Pack said.

Investigators said they haven't determined what was used to set off the explosives.

Pressure cooker explosives have been used in international terrorism and have been recommended for lone-wolf operatives by al-Qaida's branch in Yemen.

But information on how to make the bombs is readily found online, and U.S. officials said Americans should not rush to judgment in linking the attack to overseas terrorists.

DesLauriers said there had been no claim of responsibility for the attack.

He urged people to come forward with anything suspicious, such as hearing someone express an interest in explosives or a desire to attack the marathon, seeing someone carrying a dark heavy bag at the race or hearing mysterious explosions recently.

“Someone knows who did this,” the FBI agent said.

The bombs exploded 10 or more seconds apart, tearing off victims' limbs and spattering streets with blood, instantly turning the festive race into a hellish scene of confusion, horror and heroics.

The blasts killed 8-year-old Martin Richard, of Boston, 29-year-old Krystle Campbell, of Medford, and a third victim, identified only as a graduate student at Boston University.

Doctors who treated the wounded corroborated reports that the bombs were packed with shrapnel intended to cause mayhem.

“We've removed BBs, and we've removed nails from kids. One of the sickest things for me was just to see nails sticking out of a little girl's body,” said Dr. David Mooney, director of the trauma center at Boston Children's Hospital.

At Massachusetts General Hospital, all four amputations performed there were above the knee, with no hope of saving more of the legs, said Dr. George Velmahos, chief of trauma surgery.

“It wasn't a hard decision to make,” he said. “We just completed the ugly job that the bomb did.”

Obama plans to visit Boston on Thursday to attend an interfaith service in honor of the victims. He has traveled four times to cities reeling from mass violence, most recently in December after the schoolhouse shooting in Newtown, Conn.

In the wake of the attack, security was stepped up around the White House and across the country. Police massed at federal buildings and transit centers in the nation's capital, critical response teams deployed in New York City and security officers with bomb-sniffing dogs spread through Chicago's Union Station.

Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano said that the stepped-up security was a precaution and that there was no evidence the bombings were part of a wider plot.

Pressure cooker explosives have been used in Afghanistan, India, Nepal and Pakistan, according to a July 2010 intelligence report by the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security. One of the three devices used in the May 2010 Times Square attempted bombing was a pressure cooker, the report said.

“Placed carefully, such devices provide little or no indication of an impending attack,” the report said.

The Pakistani Taliban, which claimed responsibility for the 2010 attempt in Times Square, has denied any part in the Boston Marathon attack.

Al-Qaida's branch in Yemen gave a detailed description of how to make a bomb using a pressure cooker in a 2010 issue of Inspire, its English-language online publication aimed at would-be terrorists acting alone.

In a chapter titled “Make a bomb in the kitchen of your mom,” it says “the pressurized cooker is the most effective method” for making a simple bomb, and it provides directions.

The tightly sealed pot makes easier-to-obtain but weaker explosives faster and stronger, amplifying the blast and the carnage.

Naser Jason Abdo, a former U.S. soldier, was sentenced to life in prison last year after being convicted of planning to use a pair of bombs made from pressure cookers in an attack on a Texas restaurant frequented by soldiers from Fort Hood. He was found with the Inspire article.

Investigators in the Boston bombing also are combing surveillance tapes from businesses around the finish line and asking travelers at Logan Airport to share any photos or video that might help.

“This is probably one of the most photographed areas in the country yesterday,” said Boston police Commissioner Edward Davis. He said two security sweeps of the marathon route had been conducted before the bombing.

Boston police and firefighter unions announced a $50,000 reward for information leading to arrests.

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