Gas-rich Israel may find exporting tricky
JERUSALEM — Recent discoveries of extensive offshore natural gas deposits, set to begin flowing in the coming days, are turning into a geopolitical tangle for Israel.
The deposits are expected to provide Israel with enough natural gas for decades and transform the country, famously empty of natural resources, into an energy exporter. Yet selling the gas overseas will require Israel to navigate a geopolitical quagmire that risks angering allies and enemies alike. Amid the uncertainty, Israel still has not formulated an export policy.
“Instead of being an ingredient which serves to calm the tensions of the eastern Mediterranean, (the discoveries) provide instead another impetus for rivalry,” said Simon Henderson, a fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. “There is a reason this is often called diplomatically trapped gas.”
Israel discovered two large fields, Tamar and the heftier Leviathan, in 2009 and 2010. Tamar, which holds an estimated 8.5 trillion cubic feet, is set to begin pumping to the Israeli market in the coming days, while Leviathan, which boasts an estimated 16 trillion to 18 trillion cubic feet of gas, is expected to go online in 2016, the approximate time when exports are expected to begin.
The discoveries are just a portion of the huge reserves in the Levant Basin, which the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in 2010 holds 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable natural gas.
While Israel's finds are minimal compared with gas giants Russia, Iran or Qatar, they are more than enough for the country's domestic needs and would enable the country to reduce its reliance on costlier and dirtier oil and coal. Nearby Cyprus also has become newly resource-rich, and Israel's other neighbors, including enemies, may discover their own deposits.
In all, Israel has the world's 46th largest supply of proven natural gas reserves, according to the CIA Factbook.