The Pilgrims' economic progress
On Thanksgiving, I sparked some controversy by recounting to friends the story of the first Thanksgiving.
As every schoolchild knows, the small band of brave souls carried to Massachusetts in 1620 by the Mayflower did not have much to be thankful for at first. Nearly half of the passengers died before that winter was over. Less well known, however, is that the Pilgrims' existence in Plymouth Plantation continued to be precarious until they abandoned primitive communism and adopted private-property rights.
Here's Yale law professor Robert Ellickson:
“Although they planted household gardens almost from the start, they collectivized initial field and livestock operations. The settlers had some agricultural successes, but they were unable to grow corn in their common field. Within six months of reaching Plymouth, almost one-half of the population had perished from disease.
“In 1624 the Plymouth colonists deviated from the investors' plan and assigned each family from one to 10 acres, depending on the number of family members. This greatly increased productivity.”
Indeed it did, as noted by Plymouth Gov. William Bradford:
“(Privatization) had very good success; for it made all hands very industrious, so as much more corne was planted then other waise. ... The women now wente willingly into the field, and tooke their little-ones with them to set corne, which before would aledg weaknes and inabilitie; whome to have compelled would have bene thought great tiranie and oppression.”
The lesson is clear. Economic systems in which each person is entitled to live off the fruits of other people's efforts discourage the production of the fruits that we'd all like to live off of. In contrast, economic systems grounded on private-property rights make “all hands very industrious” by strengthening everyone's incentives to work hard and produce.
Some friends objected to my telling of the Pilgrims' progress. These friends insisted that reality is too complex to be reduced to such simple accounts.
It's true that reality is vastly more complicated than any one account or theory of it often leads gullible undergraduates to believe. And caution is always in order when drawing lessons from individual historical incidents.
Yet the complexity of reality doesn't mean that every account of it must be encyclopedic to be useful.
At the start of each semester, I ask my students a hypothetical question: “If I promise that you'll get an ‘A' for this course, regardless of how you perform on the exams, will that promise affect your study habits for my class?” Each and every one of my students immediately confesses: “Of course it will. I won't study as hard as I would if my grade depends on my performance on the exams.”
Lessons don't get any simpler than this one. And while a doctoral student writing a dissertation on the motivations of college undergraduates would undoubtedly give a more full and detailed analysis of my students' reactions, the essential and unadorned point of my hypothetical question is powerful. That point is that incentives matter. People respond to incentives, and they respond in pretty predictable ways.
Our Pilgrim fathers (and mothers) proved this point.
Donald J. Boudreaux is a professor of economics at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va. His column appears twice monthly.
Show commenting policy
TribLive commenting policy
You are solely responsible for your comments and by using TribLive.com you agree to our Terms of Service.
We moderate comments. Our goal is to provide substantive commentary for a general readership. By screening submissions, we provide a space where readers can share intelligent and informed commentary that enhances the quality of our news and information.
While most comments will be posted if they are on-topic and not abusive, moderating decisions are subjective. We will make them as carefully and consistently as we can. Because of the volume of reader comments, we cannot review individual moderation decisions with readers.
We value thoughtful comments representing a range of views that make their point quickly and politely. We make an effort to protect discussions from repeated comments either by the same reader or different readers.
We follow the same standards for taste as the daily newspaper. A few things we won't tolerate: personal attacks, obscenity, vulgarity, profanity (including expletives and letters followed by dashes), commercial promotion, impersonations, incoherence, proselytizing and SHOUTING. Don't include URLs to Web sites.
We do not edit comments. They are either approved or deleted. We reserve the right to edit a comment that is quoted or excerpted in an article. In this case, we may fix spelling and punctuation.
We welcome strong opinions and criticism of our work, but we don't want comments to become bogged down with discussions of our policies and we will moderate accordingly.
We appreciate it when readers and people quoted in articles or blog posts point out errors of fact or emphasis and will investigate all assertions. But these suggestions should be sent via e-mail. To avoid distracting other readers, we won't publish comments that suggest a correction. Instead, corrections will be made in a blog post or in an article.
- Pirates showing interest in starting pitcher Masterson
- Despite cross-check, Pens’ Crosby expects contact in front of net
- CPR helps revive Heinz Field worker with cardiac arrest
- Steelers’ Roethlisberger remains in concussion protocol
- Downtown barbershop target of racial-slur graffiti
- In letter to Congress, former national security experts back settling Syrian refugees
- Founder of Z&M Cycle Sales in Hempfield killed in Florida motorcycle crash
- Increasing player salaries pinch financial flexibility of Pirates
- Starkey: Tomlin lived in his fears
- South Connellsville pedestrian dies
- Monessen lawyer disbarred by state disciplinary board