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Rarely seen hellbenders subject of ongoing investigation

Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Clarion University students Craig Kennedy and Jared Bilak prepare to swab a captured hellbender for Chytrid Fungus as Jean Keene from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy holds a net during a study at a stream Tuesday, July 30, 2013, in northern Indiana County.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Clarion University students Craig Kennedy and Jared Bilak prepare to swab a captured hellbender for Chytrid Fungus as Jean Keene from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy holds a net during a study at a stream Tuesday, July 30, 2013, in northern Indiana County.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Eric Chapman, director of aquatic science at the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy (left), replaces a large rock as fellow members of the conservancy from left to right Brad Georgic, Kelly Horrell and Danielle Plaisted examine a captured hellbender during their study Tuesday, July 30, 2013, at a stream in northern Indiana County.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Eric Chapman, director of aquatic science at the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy (left), replaces a large rock as fellow members of the conservancy from left to right Brad Georgic, Kelly Horrell and Danielle Plaisted examine a captured hellbender during their study Tuesday, July 30, 2013, at a stream in northern Indiana County.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Eric Chapman, director of aquatic science at the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy (seventh from right), joins students from Clarion University and other members of the conservancy to turn over a large rock to capture hellbenders during their study Tuesday, July 30, 2013, at a stream in northern Indiana County.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Eric Chapman, director of aquatic science at the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy (seventh from right), joins students from Clarion University and other members of the conservancy to turn over a large rock to capture hellbenders during their study Tuesday, July 30, 2013, at a stream in northern Indiana County.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Western Pennsylvania Conservancy biologist Brad Georgic holds a captured hellbender during a study at a stream Tuesday, July 30, 2013, in northern Indiana County.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Western Pennsylvania Conservancy biologist Brad Georgic holds a captured hellbender during a study at a stream Tuesday, July 30, 2013, in northern Indiana County.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Western Pennsylvania Conservancy biologists (from left) Danielle Plaisted, Molly Moore, Brad Georgic, Kelly Horrell, Melissa Creighton and Jean Keene prepare to begin their hellbender study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. The captured hellbenders are weighed, measured and microchipped before being returned to the same rock under which they were found.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Western Pennsylvania Conservancy biologists (from left) Danielle Plaisted, Molly Moore, Brad Georgic, Kelly Horrell, Melissa Creighton and Jean Keene prepare to begin their hellbender study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. The captured hellbenders are weighed, measured and microchipped before being returned to the same rock under which they were found.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Western Pennsylvania Conservancy biologists Kelly Horrell (left) and Danielle Plaisted search a net to see if they captured a hellbender during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. Once captured, the hellbenders are swabbed for Chytrid Fungus, weighed, measured and microchipped before being returned to the rock under which they were found.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Western Pennsylvania Conservancy biologists Kelly Horrell (left) and Danielle Plaisted search a net to see if they captured a hellbender during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. Once captured, the hellbenders are swabbed for Chytrid Fungus, weighed, measured and microchipped before being returned to the rock under which they were found.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - A captured hellbender is carried in a net to be processed by biologists from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy and Clarion University students during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>A captured hellbender is carried in a net to be processed by biologists from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy and Clarion University students during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - A hellbender is released after being processed during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. Captured hellbenders are swabbed for Chytrid Fungus, weighed, measured and microchipped before being returned to the rock under which they were found.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>A hellbender is released after being processed during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. Captured hellbenders are swabbed for Chytrid Fungus, weighed, measured and microchipped before being returned to the rock under which they were found.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Jean Keene from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy holds a captured hellbender during a study of a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Jean Keene from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy holds a captured hellbender during a study of a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Clarion University student Craig Kennedy holds a captured hellbender while fellow student Jared Bilak swabs it for Chytrid Fungus as Jean Keene from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy looks on during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. Captured hellbenders are weighed, measured and microchipped by biologists from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy before being returned to the rock under which they were found.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Clarion University student Craig Kennedy holds a captured hellbender while fellow student Jared Bilak swabs it for Chytrid Fungus as Jean Keene from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy looks on during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. Captured hellbenders are weighed, measured and microchipped by biologists from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy before being returned to the rock under which they were found.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Clarion University student Jared Bilak prepares to swab a hellbender for Chytrid Fungus during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. Captured hellbenders are also weighed, measured and microchipped by biologists from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy before being returned to the rock under which they were found.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Clarion University student Jared Bilak prepares to swab a hellbender for Chytrid Fungus during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013. Captured hellbenders are also weighed, measured and microchipped by biologists from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy before being returned to the rock under which they were found.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - Western Pennsylvania Conservancy biologist's (from left to right) Jean Keene, Brad Georgic and Nick Hepfl prepare to return a hellbender to the rock that it was captured from after it was processed during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>Western Pennsylvania Conservancy biologist's (from left to right) Jean Keene, Brad Georgic and Nick Hepfl prepare to return a hellbender to the rock that it was captured from after it was processed during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013.
Barry Reeger | Tribune-Review - A captured hellbender is measured by biologists from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013.
<div style='float:right;width:100%;' align='right'><em>Barry Reeger  |  Tribune-Review</em></div>A captured hellbender is measured by biologists from the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy during a study at a stream in northern Indiana County on Tuesday, July 30, 2013.

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No threat to fishermen

Few people, including ardent anglers, encounter hellbenders.

Pat Roberts, a seventh-grade science teacher in the Greater Latrobe School District, grew up fishing the same Indiana County stream surveyed this past week. Yet he said he never saw a hellbender until volunteering for the crew.

“I never looked for them. I never even knew they existed,” he said. “I think a lot of people are that way. We'll be out doing this work, and we'll come across guys fishing, and when they see what we're finding on their home stream, they're amazed.”

That unfamiliarity and hellbenders' size — they can reach 28 inches and weigh about 4 pounds — long gave the species a bad reputation among fishermen. Many thought they ate trout and trout eggs and thus were bad for fish populations.

That's not true, said Eric Chapman of the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy.

“It's actually completely the opposite,” he said. “Trout eat hellbenders, especially juveniles.”

With flat heads and mottled brown bodies lined on the sides by bunched, velvety ribbons of skin that help them breathe — perfect camouflage for the rocky bottoms they love — hellbenders feed almost exclusively on crayfish, he said.

For more on hellbenders, visit www3.ag.purdue.edu/extension/hellbender/Pages/default.aspx or hellbenders.org.

Saturday, Aug. 3, 2013, 7:24 p.m.
 

The search for eastern hellbenders begins with a question followed by a heave.

“Who's diving?” someone asks, as four or five large guys prepare to reach down and grab one edge of a stream-bottom rock the size of a truck hood.

“Get skinny. Get friendly,” they're told as they crowd together.

Then, the countdown begins. “One, two, three,” the lifters chant, and with a lot of grunting and the occasional expletive, the rock is raised until it's upright, like a kitchen table on its side. The diver squirts in between their rigid legs — just nose, eyes and back sticking above the water, like a surfacing turtle — and starts feeling around. Two other people pin long-handled nets to the stream bottom at the rock's corners or hinges.

Sometimes, there's nothing to be found. In that case, the diver backs out of the way, and the rock is dropped, coming down less with a splash than a deep-bellied, plunging swoosh.

But sometimes, especially if the newly-exposed streambed is soft and squishy, a hellbender awaits.

That was the case this time.

“Check those nets. This ooze feels pretty good,” said Alysha Trexler, watershed scientist with the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy.

Sure enough, when the nets were lifted, one contained a hellbender, an adult female almost 23 inches long and weighing about 2 34 pounds, a big specimen even for what is Pennsylvania's largest salamander.

“That's a hog. That's an amazing animal,” said Eric Chapman, the conservancy's director of aquatic science and leader of this crew.

It's also an animal that appears to be in trouble, though no one is sure to what degree or why.

The hellbender's range stretches from Georgia to New York and west into Missouri and Arkansas.

They're native to most Pennsylvania streams and rivers, though that wide distribution, coupled with a long-standing lack of money and manpower to study them, means that no one “has a good grasp” of how common they really are, said Chris Urban, chief of the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission's natural diversity section.

That's nothing new. An article in the 1937 edition of “Pennsylvania Angler,” the commission's magazine, asked sportsmen to report “notes, measurements and stomach records” of hellbenders they encountered because “we know very little about this interesting inhabitant of our waters.”

Seventy-six years later, groups like the conservancy, operating in Indiana and Westmoreland counties and Allegheny National Forest, are working watershed by watershed to learn as much as possible, Urban said.

“It's a big rock we're trying to break. It's going to take years to do,” Urban said. “It's probably going to take 10 years to get our heads around it, and some would argue it's going to take longer than that.”

Whether the species has that long is the question.

“We're looking at an animal that throughout its range is in a great deal of trouble,” said Peter Petokas, a research associate with Lycoming College's Clean Water Institute who has been studying hellbenders in Northcentral Pennsylvania for eight years. “There are still places with good numbers of them. At most of those, there is still lots of reproduction going on. But at the sites where they're not doing so well, there's almost no reproduction.

“What you end up with is areas that either have a lot of them or have almost none of them.”

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is worried enough that it is considering listing eastern hellbenders as a federally threatened or endangered species.

Researchers in several states have collected hellbender eggs from the wild and raised them in zoos, with the idea of preserving the species for later release, Petokas said. He's hoping to supply the Bronx Zoo with Pennsylvania hellbender eggs this fall.

In the meantime, the work of studying this species goes on.

Chapman's crew weighs and measures every hellbender it finds. All get a pit tag in their tail, similar to the chip inserted into pets. That allows researchers with electronic scanners to tell whether they're seeing the same animals year after year or finding new ones.

Interns from Clarion University swab each for evidence of chytrid fungus, an infection some believe may be behind the hellbender's decline.

It's time consuming, labor intensive and physically demanding. Some crew members lift weights all year just to prepare for the huge rocks they'll encounter, Chapman said. All do stretching exercises before wading into the water.

It's important work, he said.

“Whenever you've got pollution or disease or a problem in your water, the first thing to disappear is the amphibians because everything goes through their skin. Hellbenders are the canary in the coal mine for our streams,” Chapman said.

Added Petokas: “They're an organism that has as much right to exist out there as we do. And if we're causing them to decline, we've got to be good stewards of our shared ecosystem and figure out what's wrong and solve that problem.”

Bob Frye is a staff writer for Trib Total Media. Reach him at bfrye@tribweb.com or via Twitter @bobfryeoutdoors.

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