Farming's birth may have covered more ground
A rich trove of artifacts and plant remains excavated from southwestern Iran suggests that ancient humans' transition from hunting and gathering to farming occurred throughout the Fertile Crescent at roughly the same time.
The excavation also revealed that this crucial change, which helped the region earn its reputation as the cradle of civilization, happened gradually over thousands of years, not in a few generations or centuries as previously thought, according to a study published this month in the journal Science.
The findings from the excavation in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains represent a paradigm shift in scholars' understanding of agriculture's origins, and the villages, towns and civilizations that emerged as a result, experts said.
For decades, archaeologists believed agriculture took root in a part of the Fertile Crescent called the Levant, which includes present-day Israel, Lebanon and Jordan as well as parts of Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and other countries. From there, it was thought to have spread eastward to present-day Iran.
“The eastern Fertile Crescent has been treated as backwater,” said Melinda Zeder, a senior scientist at the Smithsonian Institution's Program in Human Ecology and Archaeobiology, who was not involved in the study. Now the understanding that people in the Zagros grew and ground cereal grains as early as their counterparts in the Levant has “democratized this situation where everyone in the region was involved,” she said.
Excavations in the western Fertile Crescent yielded evidence of plant and animal domestication dating to about 11,500 years ago, while digs in the eastern Fertile Crescent found evidence of domestication dating to only about 9,500 years ago. After the Iranian Revolution in 1979, however, Western archaeologists were unable to analyze sites in the east with the same modern recovery and dating techniques used to study those to the west.
Improved diplomatic relations between Iran and the West enabled archaeologists from the University of Tuebingen in Germany to visit the 12,000-year-old Chogha Golan site in 2009 and 2010, which they excavated with their counterparts from the Iranian Center for Archaeological Research. They were eager to do so because recent genetic analysis of modern barley and animals such as sheep, pigs and goats in the eastern Fertile Crescent suggested that domestication could have begun earlier than 9,500 years ago.
The items they unearthed from the 7-acre site were remarkably well preserved. Perched at the edge of a former looter's pit, the archaeologists drew up 10-liter buckets filled with botanic and stone remains. They rinsed off the sediment and discovered human and animal figurines, fish bones and charred bits of wild barley, lentil, grass peas, emmer wheat and other ancestors of crop plants.
The archaeologists also discovered chaff remains from cereal grains, indicating that people processed their harvest. They also found mortars and grinding stones.
Show commenting policy
TribLive commenting policy
You are solely responsible for your comments and by using TribLive.com you agree to our Terms of Service.
We moderate comments. Our goal is to provide substantive commentary for a general readership. By screening submissions, we provide a space where readers can share intelligent and informed commentary that enhances the quality of our news and information.
While most comments will be posted if they are on-topic and not abusive, moderating decisions are subjective. We will make them as carefully and consistently as we can. Because of the volume of reader comments, we cannot review individual moderation decisions with readers.
We value thoughtful comments representing a range of views that make their point quickly and politely. We make an effort to protect discussions from repeated comments either by the same reader or different readers.
We follow the same standards for taste as the daily newspaper. A few things we won't tolerate: personal attacks, obscenity, vulgarity, profanity (including expletives and letters followed by dashes), commercial promotion, impersonations, incoherence, proselytizing and SHOUTING. Don't include URLs to Web sites.
We do not edit comments. They are either approved or deleted. We reserve the right to edit a comment that is quoted or excerpted in an article. In this case, we may fix spelling and punctuation.
We welcome strong opinions and criticism of our work, but we don't want comments to become bogged down with discussions of our policies and we will moderate accordingly.
We appreciate it when readers and people quoted in articles or blog posts point out errors of fact or emphasis and will investigate all assertions. But these suggestions should be sent via e-mail. To avoid distracting other readers, we won't publish comments that suggest a correction. Instead, corrections will be made in a blog post or in an article.
- More emails on Benghazi to go public
- Gun rights supporters protest Obama’s trip to Oregon after campus shooting
- Scotland Yard’s Crime Museum goes on display in London
- Arizona, Texas university shootings kill 2
- Court blocks Obama water protections
- House GOP colleagues pressure Ryan
- Iowa ex-lottery security officer hit with new charges
- Drone in Ellipse leads to citation for operator
- Searchers find cousins alive in Kentucky’s Red River Gorge area
- Officials: Broken rail caused February West Virginia train derailment
- Transient trio jailed in pair’s slayings in California