In difficult economic times, simplistic remedies for restoring the economy to health are in ample supply. And no remedy for a slumping economy with high unemployment is more simplistic -- and more frequently proposed -- than is increased government spending.
Higher government spending just seems such an obvious course of corrective action. The problem, after all, seems to be that consumers just aren't spending enough. This inadequacy of consumer demand leads producers to produce less stuff. And so workers are laid off, thus causing consumer spending to fall even further.
Nothing seems more obvious, and simpler, than for government to pick up the slack in spending.
But yelling "Spending is too low!" is to identify a symptom, not a cause. It's like identifying blisters -- rather than the ill-fitting shoes that cause them -- as the problem to be solved.
Too few pundits and politicians -- and, sadly, too few economists -- dig deeply enough to identify the ultimate causes of economic troubles signaled by symptoms such as inadequate spending.
In popular discussion, there's little explanation for prolonged unemployment beyond unhelpful repetitions of the fact that people aren't spending enough to reduce unemployment.
Why do consumers and businesses sometimes for extended periods spend too little• Why do human beings in market economies -- that have a long tradition of entrepreneurship, innovation and adjusting to change -- sometimes (but not always) remain mired for years in recessions?
Keynesian economists explain this inadequate spending as being the result of ... inadequate spending. The effect is the same as the cause.
If, for whatever reasons -- say, "animal spirits" -- people cut their spending, pessimism will spread throughout the economy, causing spending to remain inadequate.
This Keynesian explanation is adolescent. Lazily identifying the symptom as the underlying problem, Keynesians then craft a "theory" that shows just how inadequate spending can in fact cause inadequate spending. How clever of them!
It's understandable that many people untutored in economics fall for this nonsense. Just as many untutored in geography naturally think the Earth is flat (looks that way, doesn't it?), many untutored in economics, upon seeing businesses closing up and workers being laid off, conclude that the problem is inadequate spending (looks that way, doesn't it?).
But in economics, what can be seen only through sober, extended thinking is often more important than what is seen merely with the naked eye.
It's also understandable that Keynesianism receives many politicians' applause: It gives them intellectual cover to do what they naturally want to do -- namely, spend other people's money.
Keynesian theory is an unintended gift from some economists to politicians -- a neatly wrapped box that, when opened, transforms with mathematical wizardry and twisted theorizing that which was long held to be irresponsible and imprudent (deficit spending) into "fiscal policy" said to be scientifically necessary.
If there were a private-sector version of Keynesian economics, it would explain that increased spending funded by pickpocketing, burglary and armed robbery only seems anti-social; in fact, you see, these activities are socially productive when workers are unemployed.
Understanding how an economy actually operates requires much deeper thinking than Keynesians supply.
Why do entrepreneurs and businesses, otherwise eager to take risks and compete for consumers' dollars, remain inactive during prolonged recessions• What's needed is an answer that identifies as the underlying problem something other than the symptom.
That answer, I believe, is what economist Robert Higgs calls "regime uncertainty" -- the subject of my next column.
Show commenting policy
TribLive commenting policy
You are solely responsible for your comments and by using TribLive.com you agree to our Terms of Service.
We moderate comments. Our goal is to provide substantive commentary for a general readership. By screening submissions, we provide a space where readers can share intelligent and informed commentary that enhances the quality of our news and information.
While most comments will be posted if they are on-topic and not abusive, moderating decisions are subjective. We will make them as carefully and consistently as we can. Because of the volume of reader comments, we cannot review individual moderation decisions with readers.
We value thoughtful comments representing a range of views that make their point quickly and politely. We make an effort to protect discussions from repeated comments either by the same reader or different readers.
We follow the same standards for taste as the daily newspaper. A few things we won't tolerate: personal attacks, obscenity, vulgarity, profanity (including expletives and letters followed by dashes), commercial promotion, impersonations, incoherence, proselytizing and SHOUTING. Don't include URLs to Web sites.
We do not edit comments. They are either approved or deleted. We reserve the right to edit a comment that is quoted or excerpted in an article. In this case, we may fix spelling and punctuation.
We welcome strong opinions and criticism of our work, but we don't want comments to become bogged down with discussions of our policies and we will moderate accordingly.
We appreciate it when readers and people quoted in articles or blog posts point out errors of fact or emphasis and will investigate all assertions. But these suggestions should be sent via e-mail. To avoid distracting other readers, we won't publish comments that suggest a correction. Instead, corrections will be made in a blog post or in an article.
- Founder of Z&M Cycle Sales in Hempfield killed in Florida motorcycle crash
- Starkey: Tomlin lived in his fears
- Increasing player salaries pinch financial flexibility of Pirates
- Slain St. Clair officer walked into ‘worst nightmare’ for police
- Steelers receiver Wheaton takes advantage of opportunity in breakout game
- Penguins’ reshuffled top line of Crosby, Dupuis, Kunitz looks familiar
- Film session: Long shots dotted Steelers’ passing game
- 2,200 union employees of ATI lose coverage
- 7 percent in Allegheny County able to carry concealed gun
- No. 11 Purdue presents tall order for Pitt
- Steelers notebook: Bryant confident in backup Jones if Big Ben can’t play