George Will: Let flawed court precedent fall
The doctrine that court precedents should have momentum for respect — the predictability of settled law gives citizens due notice of what is required or proscribed — is called stare decisis. This Latin translates as: “To stand by things decided.” The translation is not: “If a precedent was produced by bad reasoning and has produced irrational and unjust results, do not correct the error, just shrug, say, ‘well, to err is human,’ and continue adhering to the mistake.”
Last week, the Supreme Court was roiled by an unusually pointed disagreement about stare decisis. It occurred in a case that demonstrated how, when judicial review works well, Americans’ rights can be buttressed and American liberty enlarged by a process that begins when the denial of a right is challenged by someone who thinks that precedents, although important, are not graven in granite by the finger of God. Someone like Rose Mary Knick.
This 70-year-old got her dander up and challenged a 34-year-old Supreme Court precedent that substantially impeded her ability to contest a township ordinance that significantly burdened her property rights over her 90 rural acres in eastern Pennsylvania. In the past, that state had many burials on private land, and in 2012 Knick’s township decreed that all cemeteries must be open to the public during daylight, and that township personnel could enter such properties to look for violations. There is some evidence that long ago there might have been a small burial plot on Knick’s property.
The Fifth Amendment’s Takings Clause says that “private property [shall not] be taken for public use, without just compensation.” Knick, who was exposed to cascading fines for resisting the township’s ordinance, wished to challenge the ordinance as a taking. But because of a 1985 court ruling, she was confronted with what Chief Justice John Roberts last week called a “Catch-22.”
That ruling held that before having access to federal courts, a plaintiff must first achieve a state court decision on the takings claims. But, wrote Roberts, if after the time and expense of the state process the plaintiff receives an adverse ruling there concerning just compensation, that ruling generally precludes a subsequent federal suit. So the court ruled 5-4 that the 1985 ruling should not stand as a burden on plaintiffs seeking a federal remedy for state infringements of their constitutional rights.
A brief filed with the court on Knick’s behalf by Washington’s Cato Institute and others argued that the 1985 decision was an anomaly that effectively consigned “Takings Clause claims to second-class status. No other individual constitutional rights claim is systematically excluded from federal court in the same way.” The post-Civil War 14th Amendment was enacted to secure federal rights for all citizens, which requires access to federal courts “to vindicate their federal rights.” Congress wrote that amendment and other laws because, according to the brief, it worried that “state courts could not be trusted to adequately enforce the federal Constitution against the coordinate branches of state government.”
“Fiat Justitia ruat caelum” is Latin for “Let justice be done though the heavens fall.” Perhaps that would not be prudent. However, when a flawed precedent falls, this is hardly equivalent to the heavens falling.
George Will is a columnist for The Washington Post and can be reached via email.